Early seventeenth-century Europe was facing the repercussions of the Protestant Reformation, which had started one century earlier.
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On top of this, the fanaticism that characterized Catholic-Protestant relations had no parallel in the history of the Middle East. For many centuries, Sunnis and Shia—but also Christians, Jews and other religious groups—have lived side-by-side in the region, reaching a level of coexistence higher than any registered in most of the rest of the world. This should not suggest that communal conflict was historically unknown.
Instances of Sunni-Shia violence have been documented as early as the Middle Ages. Yet, their nature and scope are hardly comparable to more recent times.
There Is No Thirty Years' War in the Middle East
However, the French recovered, and fighting between the French-Protestant alliance and the forces of Spain and the Holy Roman Empire were at a stalemate for the next several years. In , the Portuguese began to revolt against their Spanish rulers, thereby weakening their military efforts on behalf of the Holy Roman Empire. Two years later, the Swedes re-entered the fray, further weakening Habsburg forces.
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The next year, , was pivotal in the decades-long conflict. That year, Denmark-Norway took up arms again, this time fighting on the side of the Habsburgs and the Holy Roman Empire. Over the ensuing years, the French army had several notable victories, but also suffered significant defeats, particularly at the Battle of Herbsthausen in Also in , the Swedes attacked Vienna, but were unable to capture the city from the Holy Roman Empire.
Thirty Years’ War
In , the Habsburg forces led by Octavio Piccolomini were able to repel the Swedes and the French from what is now Austria. Weakened by the fighting, for example, Spain lost its grip over Portugal and the Dutch republic. The peace accords also granted increased autonomy to the former Holy Roman Empire states in German-speaking central Europe. Ultimately, though, historians believe the Peace of Westphalia laid the groundwork for the formation of the modern nation-state, establishing fixed boundaries for the countries involved in the fighting and effectively decreeing that residents of a state were subject to the laws of that state and not to those of any other institution, secular or religious.
The Thirty Year War () - Musée virtuel du Protestantisme
This radically altered the balance of power in Europe and resulted in reduced influence over political affairs for the Catholic Church, as well as other religious groups. What happened in the Thirty Years War?
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THE CAUSES OF THE WAR
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The Thirty Years War, a series of wars fought by European nations for various reasons, ignited in over an attempt by the king of Bohemia the future Holy One centered on the maritime and colonial conflict between Britain and its Bourbon enemies, France and Spain; the second, on the conflict between Frederick II the Great of Prussia and his opponents: Luther spent his early years in relative anonymity as a monk and scholar.
Two factors lay at the origin of the conflict: By the time the First Punic War broke out, Rome had become the dominant power throughout the Italian peninsula, while Much of the fighting took place in what is now northeastern China. The Russo-Japanese War was also a naval conflict, with ships exchanging fire in the
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