And as frustrating as the waiting has been, I felt it was improper to come to you with sketchy reports, or possibly even erroneous statements, which would then have to be corrected, creating even more doubt and confusion. There's been enough of that. First, let me say I take full responsibility for my own actions and for those of my administration. As angry as I may be about activities undertaken without my knowledge, I am still accountable for those activities. As disappointed as I may be in some who served me, I'm still the one who must answer to the American people for this behavior.
Finally, the president stated that his previous assertions that the U. A few months ago I told the American people I did not trade arms for hostages. My heart and my best intentions still tell me that's true, but the facts and the evidence tell me it is not. As the Tower board reported, what began as a strategic opening to Iran deteriorated, in its implementation, into trading arms for hostages.
This runs counter to my own beliefs, to administration policy, and to the original strategy we had in mind.
Oliver North was once a key figure in the Iran-Contra scandal. Now he has a new role: NRA president
To this day, Reagan's role in these transactions is not definitively known; it is unclear exactly what Reagan knew and when, and whether the arms sales were motivated by his desire to save the U. Oliver North wrote that "Ronald Reagan knew of and approved a great deal of what went on with both the Iranian initiative and private efforts on behalf of the contras and he received regular, detailed briefings on both I have no doubt that he was told about the use of residuals for the Contras, and that he approved it.
There is some question and dispute about precisely the level at which he chose to follow the operation details. There is no doubt, however, Domestically, the scandal precipitated a drop in President Reagan's popularity as his approval ratings saw "the largest single drop for any U. Internationally, the damage was more severe. Magnus Ranstorp wrote, "U. In Iran, Mehdi Hashemi , the leaker of the scandal, was executed in , allegedly for activities unrelated to the scandal. Though Hashemi made a full video confession to numerous serious charges, some observers find the coincidence of his leak and the subsequent prosecution highly suspicious.
Oliver North and John Poindexter were indicted on multiple charges on March 16, The convictions were vacated on appeal on the grounds that North's Fifth Amendment rights may have been violated by the indirect use of his testimony to Congress, which had been given under a grant of immunity. In , Poindexter was convicted on several felony counts of conspiracy , lying to Congress, obstruction of justice , and altering and destroying documents pertinent to the investigation. His convictions were also overturned on appeal on similar grounds. Liman served as chief counsel for the Senate during the Iran—Contra Scandal.
The Independent Counsel , Lawrence E. Walsh , chose not to re-try North or Poindexter. During his election campaign in , Vice President Bush denied any knowledge of the Iran—Contra affair by saying he was "out of the loop". Though his diaries included that he was "one of the few people that know fully the details", he repeatedly refused to discuss the incident and won the election.
A book published in by Israeli journalist and terrorism expert Ronen Bergman asserts that Bush was also personally and secretly briefed on the affair by Amiram Nir , a counterterrorism adviser to the then Israeli Prime Minister, when Bush was on a visit to Israel. The fact that Nir was killed in a mysterious chartered airplane crash in Mexico in December has given rise to numerous conspiracy theories ", writes Bergman. On December 24, , nearing the end of his term in office after being defeated by Bill Clinton the previous month, George H.
Bush pardoned  five administration officials found guilty, namely:. Bill Breeden, a former minister, stole the street's sign in protest of the Iran—Contra affair. He was later arrested and confined to prison, making him, as satirically noted by Howard Zinn , "the only person to be imprisoned as a result of the Iran—Contra Scandal".
Transcripts were published as: A closed Executive Session heard classified testimony from North and Poindexter; this transcript was published in a redacted format. GPO November 17, The Senate Intelligence Committee produced two reports: GPO February 26, From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Brokers of Death arms case and Israel's role in the Iran—Iraq war. Congressional committees investigating the Iran-Contra Affair. Retrieved 28 April The Tower Commission Report.
Retrieved 7 June Retrieved 22 April The stage-worthy scandal that starred Oliver North as a congressional witness". The American Presidency Project. Retrieved 17 May Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation. A Secret Foreign Policy".
Archived from the original on 16 April United States Department of Justice. A Milestone in Post-Truth Politics: A Declassified History , New York: New Press, page The New York Times. Retrieved July 19, Backing Contras with Drug Funds? New Press, pages — The American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. Vintage Books, page Shultz, Hill and Platt. For sale by the Supt. Retrieved 4 December Retrieved 15 May In the mids he began hosting a conservative radio talk show.
He also wrote several books. We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles. You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind. Your contribution may be further edited by our staff, and its publication is subject to our final approval. Unfortunately, our editorial approach may not be able to accommodate all contributions.
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The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. Learn More in these related Britannica articles: North, as it was later revealed, had also engaged in private fund-raising for the Contras. These activities constituted a violation of a law passed by Congress in the second…. North and his associates also raised private funds for the Contras.
These activities violated the Boland Amendment, a law passed by Congress in that banned direct…. The original contras had been National Guardsmen during the regime of Anastasio Somoza see Somoza family. North performed some of his community service within Potomac Gardens , a public housing project in southeast Washington, DC. The individual members of the prosecution team had isolated themselves from news reports and discussion of North's testimony, and while the defense could show no specific instance in which North's congressional testimony was used in his trial, the Court of Appeals ruled that the trial judge had made an insufficient examination of the issue.
Consequently, North's convictions were reversed. After further hearings on the immunity issue, Judge Gesell dismissed all charges against North on September 16, North lost, garnering 43 percent of votes, while incumbent Democrat Charles Robb ,  a son-in-law of President Lyndon B. Johnson , won reelection with 46 percent.
Coleman received 11 percent. North's candidacy was documented in the film A Perfect Candidate. This was the biggest accumulation of direct-mail funds for a statewide campaign to that date, and it made North the top direct-mail political fundraiser in the country in In the book, "North addresses issues of defense against global terrorism, Jihad, and radical Islam from his firsthand perspective as a military officer and national security advisor and current Middle East war correspondent.
This is a nonfiction book that gives a firsthand account of the Americans who have volunteered to join the United States Army. The book was a collection from the dozen years North and the Fox News Channel have traveled the frontlines of the War on Terror.
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During those years North and his team have profiled hundreds of soldiers and chronicles what it means to be a hero. In the book he continues the journey by following these soldiers from the battlefield back to the home front.
North was the host of the television show War Stories with Oliver North from to , and is a regular commentator on Hannity , both on the Fox News Channel. In addition, he regularly speaks at both public and private events. North appears in an episode of Auction Kings to have his Marine Corps sword returned after it was lost and presumably stolen in North was credited as a military consultant in the video game Call of Duty: Black Ops II and voiced himself in one level of the game. Stan Smith searches under his house for Oliver North's hidden gold.
In he received story credit for an episode of the TV series The Americans where the protagonist Soviet spies infiltrate a Contra training base in the United States. In , North founded the Freedom Alliance, a c 3 foundation "to advance the American heritage of freedom by honoring and encouraging military service, defending the sovereignty of the United States, and promoting a strong national defense. The charity has been criticized by conservative blogger Debbie Schlussel for distributing too little of its funds for charitable purposes.
In , North married Betsy Stuart; they have four children. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the American military figure. For the British engineer, see Oliver Danson North. Fox News correspondent United States Senate candidate.
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Retrieved October 16, The New York Times. Retrieved June 23, An American War Crime 1".
The Bakersfield Business Conference. Archived from the original on August 6, Retrieved December 23, Retrieved December 21, The stage-worthy scandal that starred Oliver North as a congressional witness". Sultan's gift lost in a mixup". Retrieved May 8,
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