These included plans to equip the class with nuclear missiles, add aircraft capability and — in the case of Illinois and Kentucky — a proposal to rebuild both as aircraft carriers instead of battleships. Iowa , New Jersey , Missouri , and Wisconsin. At the time these two battleships were to be built a proposal was put forth to have them constructed as aircraft carriers rather than fast battleships.
The plan called for the ships to be rebuilt to include a flight deck and an armament suite similar to that placed aboard the Essex -class aircraft carriers that were at the time under construction in the United States. Eventually, the Cleveland -class light cruisers were selected for the aircraft-carrier conversion. Nine of these light cruisers would be rebuilt as Independence -class light aircraft carriers.
After the surrender of the Empire of Japan , construction on Illinois and Kentucky stopped. Illinois was eventually scrapped, but Kentucky ' s construction had advanced enough that several plans were proposed to complete Kentucky as a guided missile battleship BBG by removing the aft turret and installing a missile system. He also suggested Terrier or RIM-8 Talos launchers to supplement the AA guns and proposed nuclear instead of conventional shells for the inch guns.
In , the Bureau of Ships offered a proposal based on this idea. This replaced the 5- and inch gun batteries with "two Talos twin missile systems, two RIM Tartar twin missile systems, an RUR-5 ASROC antisubmarine missile launcher, and a Regulus II installation with four missiles",  as well as flagship facilities, sonar, helicopters, and fire-control systems for the Talos and Tartar missiles. This design was later revised to accommodate the Polaris Fleet Ballistic Missile, which in turn resulted in a study of two schemes by the SCB.
In the end, none of these proposed conversions for the battleships were ever authorized. In , Ronald Reagan was elected President , with a plan to rebuild the US military as a counter to the increasing military power of the Soviet Union as one of his benchmark commitments. At the time, the Soviet Navy was in the process of commissioning a class of missile cruiser the like of which had not been seen for decades — the Kirov -class was the largest type of surface warship other than aircraft carriers or amphibious assault vessels built since World War II , and the US had not envisioned building anything like it.
As a consequence, as part of Reagan's ship Navy policy and to act as a counter to the Kirov -class, the US Navy began the process of reactivating the four Iowa -class units and modernizing them for service in the s.
Bb Montana, U S Navy Battleship: Why She Matters Today - W. Frederick Zimmerman - Google Книги
During this reactivation, the Navy considered several concepts entailing removal of the aft inch turret. Charles Myers, former Navy test pilot then a consultant for The Pentagon , proposed replacement of the turret with vertical launch systems for missiles and a flight deck for Marine helicopters. Plans for these conversions were dropped in ,  but each battleship was overhauled to burn navy distillate fuel and modernized to carry electronic warfare suites, close-in weapon systems CIWS for self-defense, and missiles.
The obsolete electronics and anti-aircraft armament were dismounted to make room for more modern systems. After recommissioning, the modernized battleships operated as centerpieces of their own battle group termed as a Battleship Battle Group or Surface Action Group , consisting of one Ticonderoga -class cruiser , one Kidd -class destroyer or Arleigh Burke -class destroyer, one Spruance -class destroyer, three Oliver Hazard Perry -class frigates and one support ship, such as a fleet oiler.
During their modernization in the s each Iowa was equipped with four of the US Navy's Phalanx CIWS mounts, two of which sat just behind the bridge and two which were next to the after ship's funnel. Iowa , New Jersey , and Missouri were equipped with the Block 0 version of the Phalanx, while Wisconsin received the first operational Block 1 version in As part of their modernization in the s, each of the Iowa s received a complement of Armored Box Launchers and "shock hardened" Mk.
The former was used by the battleships to carry and fire the BGM Tomahawk Land Attack Missiles TLAMs for use against enemy targets on land, while the latter system enabled the ships to carry a complement of RGM Harpoon anti-ship missiles for use against enemy ships. It has been alleged by members of the environmental group Greenpeace    that the battleships carried the TLAM-A also cited, incorrectly, as the TLAM-N — a Tomahawk missile with a variable yield W80 nuclear warhead — during their s service with the United States Navy, but owing to the United States Navy's policy of refusing to confirm or deny the presence of nuclear weaponry aboard its ships, these claims can not be conclusively proved.
Owing to the original design of the battleships, the Tomahawk missiles could not be fitted to the Iowa -class unless the battleships were rebuilt in such a way as to accommodate the missile mounts that would be needed to store and launch the Tomahawks. The mid and aft end of the battleships were then rebuilt to accommodate the missile magazines.
At one point, the NATO Sea Sparrow was to be installed on the reactivated battleships; however, it was determined that the system could not withstand the overpressure effects from firing the main battery. These secured the shoulder-launched weapons and their rounds for ready use by the crew. During their modernization under the ship Navy program, the Iowa -class battleships' radar systems were again upgraded. Consequently, the AA guns and their associated fire-control systems were removed when reactivated.
New Jersey received this treatment in , and the others followed in their s modernizations. With the added missile capacity of the battleships in the s came additional fire-support systems to launch and guide the ordnance. To fire the Harpoon anti-ship missiles, the battleships were equipped with the SWG-1 fire-control system, and to fire the Tomahawk missiles the battleships used either the SWG-2 or SWG-3 fire-control system. Aside from the electronics added for weaponry control, all four battleships were outfitted with a communications suite used by both cruisers and guided missile cruisers in service at the time.
During the s these battleships made use of the RQ-2 Pioneer , an unmanned aerial vehicle employed in spotting for the guns. Launched from the fantail using a rocket-assist booster that was discarded shortly after takeoff, the Pioneer carried a video camera in a pod under the belly of the aircraft which transmitted live video to the ship so operators could observe enemy actions or fall of shot during naval gunnery.
To land the UAV a large net was deployed at the back of the ship; the aircraft was flown into it. Following the Gulf War and the subsequent dissolution of the Soviet Union , the United States Navy began to decommission and mothball many of the ships it had brought out of its reserve fleet in the drive to attain a ship Navy. At the height of Navy Secretary John F. When the Soviet Union collapsed in the Navy sought to return to its traditional, ship composition. In , the decommissioned battleships were removed from the Naval Vessel Register NVR after it was determined by ranking US Navy officials that there was no place for a battleship in the modern navy.
These ships are outfitted with an Advanced Gun System AGS that was to fire specially developed 6-inch Long Range Land Attack Projectiles for shore bombardment;  however, the long-term goal for the Zumwalt -class is to have the ships mount railguns  or free-electron lasers. The Iowa -class became culturally symbolic in the United States in many different ways, to the point where certain elements of the American public — such as the United States Naval Fire Support Association — were unwilling to part with the battleships despite their apparent obsolescence in the face of modern naval combat doctrine that places great emphasis on air supremacy and missile firepower.
Although all were officially stricken from the Naval Vessel Register they were spared scrapping and were donated for use as museum ships. Their service records added to their fame, ranging from their work as carrier escorts in World War II to their shore bombardment duties in North Korea , North Vietnam , and the Middle East , as well as their service in the Cold War against the expanded Soviet Navy. In part because of the service length and record of the class, members have made numerous appearances in television shows, video games, movies, and other media, including appearances of the Kentucky and Illinois in the anime series Neon Genesis Evangelion ,  the History Channel documentary series Battle Japanese rock band Vamps performed the finale of their US tour on board Missouri on 19 September By this point in the war, aircraft carriers had displaced battleships as the primary striking arm of both the United States Navy and the Imperial Japanese Navy.
As a result of this shift in tactics, U. In , to help alleviate U. Iowa was ordered 1 July , laid down 27 June , launched 27 August , and commissioned 22 February Iowa returned to the US for operational and training exercises before being decommissioned on 24 February She was stricken from the Naval Vessel Register on 17 March Iowa was anchored as part of the National Defense Reserve Fleet in Suisun Bay , California until October , when she was towed from her mooring to Richmond, California for renovation as a museum ship. New Jersey was ordered 4 July , laid down 16 September , launched 7 December , and commissioned 23 May New Jersey completed fitting out and trained her initial crew in the Western Atlantic and Caribbean before transferring to the Pacific Theatre in advance of the planned assault on the Marshall Islands, where she screened the U.
At the Battle of Leyte Gulf, the ship protected carriers with her anti-aircraft guns. New Jersey then bombarded Iwo Jima and Okinawa. Following the Armistice , New Jersey conducted training and operation cruises until she was decommissioned. Recalled to duty in , New Jersey reported to the gunline off the Vietnamese coast, and shelled North Vietnamese targets before departing the line in December Missouri was the last of the four Iowa s to be completed.
She was ordered 12 June , laid down 6 January , launched 29 January , and commissioned 11 June Missouri conducted her trials off New York with shakedown and battle practice in Chesapeake Bay before transferring to the Pacific Fleet, where she screened US aircraft carriers involved in offensive operations against the Japanese before reporting to Okinawa to shell the island in advance of the planned landings.
Following the bombardment of Okinawa, Missouri turned her attention to the Japanese homeland islands of Honshu and Hokkaido , performing shore bombardment and screening US carriers involved in combat operations. She became a symbol of the US Navy's victory in the Pacific when representatives of the Empire of Japan boarded the battleship to sign the documents of unconditional surrender to the Allied powers in September After World War II, Missouri conducted largely uneventful training and operational cruises until suffering a grounding accident.
In , she was dispatched to Korea in response to the outbreak of the Korean War. Missouri served two tours of duty in Korea providing shore bombardment. She was decommissioned in Reactivated in , as part of the ship Navy plan, Missouri was sent on operational cruises until being assigned to Operation Earnest Will in In , Missouri participated in Operation Desert Storm , firing 28 Tomahawk Missiles and inch shells at Iraqi targets along the coast.
Wisconsin was ordered 12 June , laid down 25 January , launched 7 December , and commissioned 16 April After trials and initial training in Chesapeake Bay, she transferred to the Pacific Fleet in , and was assigned to protect the US fleet of aircraft carriers involved in operations in the Philippines until summoned to Iwo Jima to bombard the island in advance of the Marine landings. Afterward, she proceeded to Okinawa, bombarding the island in advance of the allied amphibious assault.
In mid Wisconsin turned her attention to bombarding the Japanese home islands until the surrender of Japan in August. Reactivated in , for the Korean War, Wisconsin served two tours of duty, assisting South Korean and UN forces by providing call fire support and shelling targets. Decommissioned for the last time 30 September , Wisconsin was placed in the reserve fleet until stricken from the Naval Vessel Register on 17 March , so she could be transferred for use as a museum ship.
Wisconsin is currently berthed at the Nauticus maritime museum in Norfolk, Virginia. Hull numbers BB and BB were originally intended as the first and second ships of the Montana -class of battleships;  however the passage of an emergency war building program on 19 July , resulted in both hulls being reordered as Iowa -class units to save time on construction. Initially, proposals were made to convert the hulls into aircraft carriers similar to the Essex -class , but the effort was dropped.
Illinois was ordered on 9 September , and initially laid down on 6 December However, work was suspended pending a decision on whether to convert the hull to an aircraft carrier. Upon determination the result would cost more and be less capable than building from scratch construction resumed, but was canceled for good approximately one-quarter complete on 11 August Kentucky was ordered on 9 September , and laid down on 7 March Work on the ship was suspended in June , and the hull floated out to make room for the construction of LSTs.
Work resumed in December , with completion projected for mid Further suggestions were made to convert Kentucky into a specialist anti-aircraft ship, and work was again suspended. With the hull approximately three-quarters completed she was floated on 20 January , to clear a dry-dock for repairs to Missouri , which had run aground.
During this period, plans were proposed to convert Kentucky into a guided missile battleship, which saw her reclassified from BB to BBG From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For half a century prior to laying [the Iowa class] down, the US Navy had consistently advocated armor and firepower at the expense of speed. Even in adopting fast battleships of the North Carolina class , it had preferred the slower of two alternative designs.
Great and expensive improvements in machinery design had been used to minimize the increased power on the designs rather than make extraordinary powerful machinery hence much higher speed practical. The Iowa s showed no advance at all in protection over the South Dakota s. Armament of the Iowa-class battleship. A crewman operates the ship's throttle in the main engine room aboard New Jersey. Crewmen operate the electrical generators in the upper-level engine room aboard New Jersey.
Line drawings of the proposed aircraft carrier conversion for hulls BB and BB Plans to move forward with this conversion were ultimately dropped, and both hulls were eventually scrapped. United States battleship retirement debate. It is the displacement of the ship complete, fully manned, engined, and equipped ready for sea, including all armament and ammunition, equipment, outfit, provisions and fresh water for crew, miscellaneous stores, and implements of every description that are intended to be carried in war, but without fuel or reserve boiler feed water on board.
One example is the Improved HC shell, which is said to have been test fired from Iowa at Dahlgren sometime after her s recommissioning and is alleged to have achieved a range of over 51, yards.
- Great Kids Made Easy: In Early Childhood (Great Kids Made Easy Series);
- !Tention A Story of Boy-Life during the Peninsular War by George Manville Fenn.
- Un rendez-vous surprise (Harlequin Horizon) (French Edition).
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Library of Congress Catalog Lightbody, Andy; Poyer, Joe There was a problem filtering reviews right now. Please try again later. This book was a disappointment. The line drawings are unreadable, the specifications are elementry, but the photos of the models were well done.
It would have been better served as an article in Fine Scale Modeler of how the model was built. Overpriced and under-delivering, not recommended. Very little content in book. Book reminds me of a very young childrens picture book. Very few pages in book with any worth while new information on the ship. Why She Matters Today. Excellent book on what was last class of battlehips to be designed by the Navy although none were completed. This was the class of battleships that were the super battleships to match Japan's Yamato class super battleships.
I enjoyed the book. This is basically a picture book. Which is a little surprising given that it about a ship what was never built so the pictures are a collection of design drawings, models, and artist conceptions. The book has 20 pictures and six pages of text besides the picture captions. The subtitle, "Why She Matters Today" intrigued me, but less than two and a half pages were devoted to that topic. I am interested in battleships and I grew up in Montana so I wanted to know more about a battleship named for the State of Montana, but I had expected a more scholarly book.
A book that covered more of the design history of the class. The price is a bit high for a 32 page picture book, but if you are a fan of battleships this book does provide a some information on the last designed class of American battleships.
BB-67 Montana, U.S. Navy Battleship : Why She Matters Today
BB Montana - Why She Matters Today - matters to those who have a passion for the development of big-gun battleships by the US Navy and other Navies - in a brief summary, the book illustrates the four competing designs considered before 4 was selected for production - something explored in great detail in Norman Friedman's excellent book, at more than three times the price.
For those who aspire to model the Montana, the plans and photos of models will prove a big help. And for those of us who like to imagine what the Montana might have done in battle, this book gives us plenty of food for thought. This book isn't for everyone - it's short and the text is sparse - but the photo-illustrations are superb, the models inspiring and the concept, as a monograph, is on-target for those who want to dip their toes into the pool without jumping in the deep end.
I look at the Montana and wonder - why didn't she carry more of the 5" turrets than the Iowas sure, they were the superior 5" 54s, not the war-winning 5" 38s, but there were only ten turrets, just as in the Iowa. Then I consider - this secondary armament was the equivalent of four Fletcher-class destroyers, suggesting that the Montana could all but escort herself. And I wonder what genius in the Navy Board decided that speed wasn't important - choosing the knot version 4 over the knot version 33 - dooming the ship by ensuring that it couldn't escort the Essex-class and later Midway-class carriers in combat.
A battleship that could only do 28 knots would have been useful only for escorting invasion fleets, not carrier task forces - and the invasion forces didn't need the world's most modern battleship, as the pre-war generations of battleships were sufficient to the moment. This book offers lots of food for thought, and it also offers inspiration for building a resin kit or "the Mother of all Kit-Bashing" kits sacrificing two Iowas to the cause. If you are a battleship nut-case like me, and if you're a ship-modeler not afraid of "what if" models, this book matters.
I was provided a pdf of this document for review. The un-built Montana class of American super battleships is of interest for military and naval history fans, given its place in World War II-era naval planning and production. This document includes introductory material on the inception of the American super battleship design, some information on the evolution of that design, and of course details of the cancellation of the class. This document's strength is its graphical information, including reproductions of design documents, photos of scale models used during construction planning, artistic interpretations of the ship if built, and images of a recent scale model of the ship with several views and closeups.
The author adds some discussion of current major naval projects in the context of the resource- and tactics-driven cancellation of this pre-war design. This document is a worthy addition to the library of an individual interested in World War II naval history and battleships, particularly conjectural designs. Persons interested in greater depth on American battleship design are directed to Polmar's book on that subject, which is cited in this volume.
Related Battleship Montana (BB-67) U.S. Navy Battleship (Why She Matters Today)
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